Webhooks

Webhooks allow you to send data to Make over HTTP. Webhooks create a URL that you can call from an external app or service, or from another Make scenario. Use webhooks to trigger the execution of scenarios.

Webhooks usually act as instant triggers. Contrary to scheduled triggers, which periodically ask a given service for new data to be processed, webhooks execute the scenario immediately after the webhook URL receives a request.

Make supports the following types of webhooks:

  • App-specific webhooks listen for data coming out of a specific app, also called instant triggers.

  • Custom webhooks allow you to create a URL to which you can send any data.

Creating app-specific webhooks

Many apps provide webhooks to execute scenarios whenever a certain change occurs in the app. These are called instant triggers. Instant triggers are marked with the label "INSTANT" in the list of an app's modules:

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If an app does not provide webhooks, use polling triggers to periodically poll the service for new data.

Creating custom webhooks

To create a webhook, you must insert the Custom webhook module to a scenario.

Note

Each scenario must use its own webhook. You can not use one webhook in multiple scenarios.

Inserting webhooks to scenarios

  1. Insert the Custom Webhook module from the Webhooks app.

  2. In the module's settings, click Add.

  3. Set the webhook's name and other settings, then click Save.

Make generates a URL and starts listening for requests to this URL. Send a request to this URL to have Make automatically determine the data structure for this webhook. See setting up webhook data structure below for more details.

Note

You can access the webhook's details and change the webhook's settings in the Webhooks section in the left menu.

Setting up webhook data structure

Optionally, you can let Make know what data structure to expect in the webhook request payload. Make can use data structures to validate the incoming data. If you do not set up a data structure, Make will pass the incoming data to subsequent modules in your scenario without any validation.

To enable validating incoming data, set up the webhook's data structure in one of the following ways:

  • Create a new data structure manually in the Data structures section.

  • Use an existing data structure.

You can also use the following methods to let Make know what data structure to expect.

Notice

Note that these methods do not enable data validation. The data structure set up in this way only helps with mapping the webhook data to subsequent modules in your scenario.

  • Create a data structure immediately after creating the webhook by calling the webhook URL with sample data in the request body.

  • Re-determine the data structure of an existing webhook going to the Webhook module settings, clicking Re-determine data structure, and calling the webhook URL with sample data in the request body.

If you call the webhook URL to automatically determine or re-determine the data structure, Make does not create a reusable data structure in the Data structures section. The data structure determined in this way is stored internally with the particular webhook. In this case, Make does not validate incoming data.

Scheduling webhooks processing

By default, when Make receives data on a webhook, your scenario executes immediately. If you don't want to run your scenario immediately after a webhook receives data, you can schedule your scenario to process all webhook requests periodically.

  1. Edit the scenario which is triggered by your webhook.

  2. Edit the scenario schedule settings.

    OR

    Edit the schedule settings of the webhook module.

  3. Set up your desired schedule.

When a scheduled webhook receives data, Make stores the data in the webhook's queue. The whole queue is then processed every time your schedule criteria are met.

How Make processes webhooks

When a webhook receives a request, the system stores the request in the webhook's queue. Each webhook has its own queue. Go to the Webhooks section in the left menu to view all webhooks and their queues.

Parallel vs. sequential processing

If you are using instant webhooks, Make starts processing each request immediately as the request is received. By default, scenarios with instant webhooks are processed in parallel. Even if a previous scenario execution is still being processed, Make does not wait for its processing to complete.

You can inspect all running executions in the scenario detail. Click an item in the list of running executions to view the graphical representation of that particular execution. The execution that is currently displayed is marked with an eye icon.

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To turn off parallel processing, open the settings of your scenario and select Sequential processing. With sequential processing enabled, Make waits until the previous execution is complete before starting the next one. Also, use sequential processing when you need to process your webhook requests in the order that they came in.

Processing scheduled webhooks

If you are using scheduled webhooks, requests accumulate in the queue until the schedule criteria are met. When schedule criteria are met, Make processes the queued requests based on the Maximum number of results that you set for the webhook. 

For example, if your scenario is scheduled to run every hour and your Maximum number of results is set to the default value of 2, Make processes two items from the queue every hour. If your webhook queue is filling up with requests, increase the Maximum number of results or adjust the schedule to execute the scenario more often.

Webhook queue details

To view a webhook queue, go to Webhooks in the left menu. Click the truck icon next to a webhook to display the list of unprocessed webhook requests in the queue.

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Webhook requests are stored in the queue for 30 days. Requests older than 30 days are deleted.

The limit for the number of requests stored in the queue depends on your usage allowance that is part of your subscription.

When the queue is full, all incoming webhooks over the limit will be refused.

Incoming webhook data is always stored in the queue regardless of the Data is confidential option settings. As soon as the data is processed in a scenario, it is permanently deleted.

Note

The data stored in the queue count against your storage space limit.

Webhook settings

To adjust a webhook's settings, click Webhooks in the left menu and Edit a webhook.

Setting

Description

IP restrictions

A whitelist of IP addresses delimited by comma. Only webhook requests that come from the specified IPs will be processed. Use CIDR notation to whitelist a subnet. Leave empty if you want to allow requests from all IPs.

Data structure

Select an existing data structure or create a new data structure for the webhook. Make will use the data structure to validate the incoming data. Requests that don't pass validation will be rejected with HTTP status code 400.

Get request headers

Extracts headers data from the webhook request and makes the data available for mapping in the scenario.

Get request HTTP method

Extracts the HTTP method from the request and makes the method available for mapping in the scenario.

JSON pass-through

Passes JSON payloads to subsequent modules in the scenario as a text string, as opposed to breaking the payload down into mappable fields.

Error Handling

When there is an error in your scenario with a webhook, the scenario:

  • stops immediately - when the scenario is set to run Immediately.

  • stops after 3 unsuccessful attempts (3 errors) - when the scenario is set to run as scheduled.

If your scenario contains a Webhook response module, the error is sent to the Webhook response. The webhook response module is always executed last, unless you enable Auto commit in Scenario settings.

Supported incoming data formats

Make supports the following formats of incoming data:

  • Query string

  • Form data

  • JSON

If a webhook receives data in both the query string and either form data or JSON data at the same time, the system combines the data into a single bundle. If the request contains duplicate data in different formats, the query string takes precedence and overwrites the data that was received in the other formats. We recommend you do not duplicate data in query strings, form data, and JSON.

Query String

GET 
https://hook.make.com/yourunique32characterslongstring?name=Make&job=automate

Form Data

POST 
https://hook.make.com/yourunique32characterslongstring
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded

name=Integrobot&job=automate

Multipart

POST 
https://hook.make.com/yourunique32characterslongstring
Content-Type: multipart/form-data; boundary=---generatedboundary

---generatedboundary
Content-Disposition: form-data; name="file"; filename="file.txt"
Content-Type: text/plain

Content of file.txt
---generatedboundary
Content-Disposition: form-data; name="name"
Make
---generatedboundary

In order to receive files encoded with multipart/form-data, it is necessary to configure a data structure with a  collection type field that contains the nested fields   namemime and data. The field name is a text type and contains the name of the uploaded file. The mime is a text type and contains a file in the [MIME] format. The field data is a buffer type and contains binary data for the file being transferred.

JSON

POST 
https://hook.make.com/yourunique32characterslongstring
Content-Type: application/json

{"name": "Integrobot", "job": "automate"}

To access the original JSON, open the webhook's settings and enable the JSON pass-through option:

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The maximum allowed webhook's payload size (Content-Length) is 5 MB (5.242.880 bytes) regardless of the subscription tier.

Webhook headers

To access the webhook's headers, enable the Get request headers option in the webhook's setup:

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You can then extract a particular header value with the combination of map() & get() functions. The example below shows a formula that extracts the value of the authorization header from the Headers[] array. The formula is used in a filter that compares the extracted value with the given text to pass only webhooks if there is a match.

See Mapping an array's element with a given key for further information on obtaining an array's element with a given key.

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Responding to webhooks

The default response to a webhook call contains just a simple text, "Accepted". The response is returned to the webhook's caller right away during the execution of the Custom Webhook module. You can easily test it like this:

  1. Place the Custom Webhook module in your scenario.

  2. Add a new webhook in the module's configuration.

  3. Copy the webhook's URL to your clipboard.

  4. Run the scenario - the Custom Webhook module should be waiting for the webhook call (see on the right)

  5. Open a new browser window, paste the copied URL in the address bar and press Enter.

  6. The Custom Webhook module will be triggered and the browser will display the following page:

These are default responses when the scenario does not contain the Webhook Response module:

HTTP status code

Body

Webhook accepted in the queue

200

Accepted

Webhook queue full

400

Queue is full.

If you wish to customize the webhook's response, employ the module Webhook Response. The configuration of the module contains two fields: Status and Body. The Status field should contain HTTP response status codes like 2xx for Success (e.g.200 for OK), 3xx for Redirection (e.g.307 for Temporary Redirect), 4xx for Client errors (e.g. 400 for Bad Request), etc. The Body field should contain anything that will be accepted by the webhook's call. It can be a simple text, HTML, XML, JSON, etc. It is advisable to set the Content-Type header to the corresponding mime type: text/plain for plain text, text/html for HTML, application/json for JSON, application/xml for XML, etc.

These are additional default responses when the scenario does contain the Webhook Response module:

HTTP status code

Body

Scenario encounters an error

500

Scenario failed to complete.

The timeout for sending a response is 40 seconds. If the response is not available within that period, Make returns a '200 Accepted' status.

HTML Response example

Configure the Webhook Response module as follows:

Status

2xx success HTTP status code, e.g. 200

Body

HTML code, e.g.:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
<meta charset="UTF-8">
<title>Thank you!</title>
</head>
<body>Thank you, {{1.name}}, for your request!
</body>
</html>

Custom headers

Key

Content-type

Value

text/html

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It will produce an HTML response that will be displayed like this in a web browser:

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Redirect example

Configure the Webhook Response module as follows:

Status

3xx redirection HTTP status code, e.g. 303

Custom headers

Key

Location

Value

The URL you would like to redirect to.

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Custom mailhook

Mailhook is an instant trigger module that can be triggered by sending an email to the email address generated by this module.

Example Of Use

Mailhook will monitor your incoming emails without the need to have a scheduled run of the scenario.

  1. Add the Custom mailhook to your scenario (Webhooks > Custom mailhook).

    custommailhook-1.png
  2. Generate a mailhook email address, and copy the address to the clipboard.

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  3. Save and run the scenario.

  4. Open your email account settings, and configure forwarding. Use the email address generated by the Custom mailhook module in step 2 (above) as the forwarding address.

For Gmail:

  1. Click the cogwheel (61d5aede0ad60.png) in the top-right corner, and then click See all settings.

  2. Open the Forwarding and POP/IMAP tab.61d5aedf1f459.gif

    61d5aedf1f459.gif
  3. Click the Add a forwarding address button.

  4. Enter the email address you have generated and copied in step 2 above, and click Next.

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  5. After that, a popup window will appear. Click Proceed.

  6. A confirmation code has been sent to your mailhook. You can find this code in your scenario in the Custom mailhook module's output under Bundle > Text

    61d5aee26b8c6.png
  7. Enter the verification code in forwarding settings in your Gmail account, and click Verify.

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  8. Enable the forwarding, and save changes.

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Add other desired modules to the scenario. Then save and activate the scenario

Now, every time a new email is received in your email account, the Custom mailhook module in your Make scenario is triggered and receives the email message data.

Tip

The sender and various recipient addresses (To: CC: and BCC:) are resolved in the data structure of the incoming mail. Reply-To: can be found in the Header section.

Troubleshooting

Missing items in the mapping panel

If some items are missing in the mapping panel in the setup of the modules following the Webhooks > Custom Webhook module, click the Webhooks > Custom Webhook module to open its setup and click Re-determine data structure:

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Then follow the steps described in the section Determine the webhook's data structure.